Irving Berlin's Easter Parade



TitleJudy's only pairing with Fred Astaire came about almost by accident. In 1946 songwriter Irving Berlin first approached 20th Century-Fox about making a film to be titled "Easter Parade" and to build the film around a catalog of his songs, as well as new songs he would write specifically for the film. In 1938 20th Century-Fox had done such a great job with another Berlin-based musical starring Alice Faye entitled Alexander's Ragtime Band, that makes sense that Berlin would first approach Fox. However, they balked at his request for $600,000 plus a percentage of the film's profits. He ended up getting the $600,000 but no percentage.

Ace MGM musicals producer Arthur Freed jumped at the chance to do a film with Berlin. Freed had already begun his series of musicals based on a particular composer's or songwriting team's catalogs of music with the release of the Jerome Kern bio-pic Till The Clouds Roll By in 1946. In the same year that Easter Parade was released (1948) Freed also released another biographical film based on a catalog of song hits, Words & Music (1948), this time from the catalog of Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart. Although Freed would abandon the "bio-pic" idea, he continued to produce films based on song catalogs, culminating in the legendary Singin' In The Rain in 1952 and The Band Wagon in 1953. With a quick pre-approval of Berlin's shrewd money request from MGM Studio Chief Louis B. Mayer, Freed began pre-production on Easter Parade utilizing all the talents of his famous "Freed Unit".

Judy GarlandFreed assigned Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett to write the script for Easter Parade. They had recently rescued the unworkable script for troubled The Pirate, which was currently in production starring Judy and Gene Kelly. The Pirate's director, Vincente Minnelli, was assigned as director for Easter Parade. MGM musical guru Roger Edens began the process of going through Berlin's song catalog to choose songs that best suited the story and stars, while Berlin began writing the new songs for the film. In February 1947, columnist Louella Parsons reported the Easter Parade was MGM's next big musical production, to star Judy, Gene Kelly, Frank Sinatra, Kathryn Grayson, and Red Skelton.

MGM's biggest musical star, Judy Garland, was the logical choice to star. Even though Berlin first approached Fox, Arthur Freed later stated that "the reason I got Irving to agree to do Easter Parade was on account of Judy." And this was probably true. All of the top musical talent of the day, whether it be songwriters, composers, directors, or performers - they all wanted to work with Judy Garland. Such was her reputation for having a talent approaching genius. If fact, the song "It Only Happens When I Dance With You" came about because of Judy. As Judy told the story years later: "The photographer asked us to stand in a dancing position. I quipped, 'Maybe this will inspire one of the new songs.' Irving laughed and said 'Maybe,' Then, as I was leaving, he slipped a small piece of paper into my hand, saying, 'Don't show this to anyone yet.' When I looked at it, I read the words, 'It only happens when I dance with you'. I've always considered this my very own beloved melody."

"Ragtime Violin" As production got under way in the fall of 1947, a series of obstacles popped up. On September 18, 1947, director Vincente Minnelli was taken off the film and replaced with Charles Walters. Minnelli was married to Garland at this time and their working together on The Pirate had put a huge strain on their marriage. Judy's therapist suggested that they not work together so soon.

Judy's frail condition after completing The Pirate in late July 1947 had led her to make an unpublicized suicide attempt. She was admitted to the Las Campanas sanitarium in California, then spent a few weeks at the Austen Riggs Center in Stockbridge, Massachusetts and was back home on August 20th. Just a short month later, on September 22nd, she began music rehearsals for Easter Parade with Gene Kelly, including the new Berlin song "A Couple Of Swells".

Then, on October 13th Gene Kelly broke his ankle either playing softball, volleyball, or baseball - depending on which book you read. Kelly himself later said "I told [MGM studio boss Louis B.] Mayer I'd been rehearsing a rather complicated dance step, because I didn't think he'd respond too well to the truth. I said, 'Why don't you give Fred Astaire a ring?'"

A call went out to the then nominally retired Fred Astaire. Per Kelly: "Fred called me back. He said, 'Are you sure you don't want to do this picture? It's a good picture.' I said, 'Fred, you'll be doing me a favor, 'cause they think I'm a bum. L.B. Mayer thinks I broke my leg on purpose. Please do it!"

Judy & FredAstaire was delighted at the chance of working with Garland, and quickly accepted, reporting to work on October 16th, just 3 days after Kelly broke his ankle. This move would begin a new 10 year association between Astaire and MGM resulting in some of Astaire's (and MGM's) best musical moments.

Another accident ended up helping the film. Cyd Charisse was slated to play Astaire's ex-dancing partner Nadine. But Cyd tore a ligament in her foot and had to be taken off the film. Ann Miller, a personal favorite of MGM studio boss Louis B. Mayer, auditioned for the role. Mayer told her that he couldn't help her with her audition, she would have to prove herself on her own. Ann got the role, beginning a successful new phase of her career becoming known as "tops in taps".

With the cast in place (the Sinatra, Grayson, & Skelton roles had long since vanished), the first item of business was the script. When Charles Walters came on board as director, he felt the script was terrible. The Kelly/Astaire character was a real heel. This was possibly due to Kelly's Broadway star-making hit "Pal Joey" and his film debut opposite Judy in For Me And My Gal (1942) in which he played similar "heel" characters to great effect. Sidney Sheldon was brought in to make rewrites. He tightened up the story and helped make it one of the best written musicals MGM ever made. The story is a slight departure from the average MGM musical fare of the day in that, although it's about musical performers, the story is more concerned with the love lives of the principal characters. In this case not just two or three, but FOUR people who's lives are intertwined romantically. Judy loves Fred; Fred loves Ann; Ann loves Peter; Peter loves Judy. The dialog is crisp and believable, and a definite improvement over most musicals. It's this storyline, peppered with the cavalcade of one musical showstopper after another, that keeps the audiences interest and makes Easter Parade one of the greatest of all MGM Musicals.
Judy Garland & Peter Lawford
Judy was in wonderful spirits while making Easter Parade. In fact, during the early days of production on Easter Parade, she was doing double-duty byalso filming extensive retakes for the trouble-plagued The Pirate. She relished working with Fred Astaire who later remembered "Judy's the greatest entertainer who ever lived - or probably ever will amazing girl. She could do things - anything - without rehearsing and come off perfectly. She could learn faster, do everything better than most people. It was one of the greatest thrills to work with her."

Filming went along smoothly and without a hitch. Easter Parade was completed on March 12th, 1948 and would go on to become MGM's biggest hit of 1948, grossing over 6 million dollars in it's initial release. As far as Judy's career is concerned, Easter Parade was the last big-budget MGM Musical she would make for the studio (aside from her guest appearance in Words & Music, also in 1948). Her films after Easter Parade, while all huge hits at the box office and with the public, were of a smaller scale and were produced not by the Freed Unit (where most of the big budget MGM musicals were made) but by the Joe Pasternak Unit, a unit known for
making reliable small budget musicals. This was due to Judy's increasing problems with overwork, insecurities, and her growing addiction to several medications.

"A Couple Of Swells"The pairing of Garland & Astaire was such a success that MGM immediately planned to team them again in The Barkleys of Broadway, written by the witty team of Betty Comden & Adolph Green. However, after the strain of making The Pirate, Easter Parade, and her guest appearance in Words & Music (all three released in 1948) Judy was unfit to endure another strenuous high profile production. Beginning on June 14, 1948 she was in rehearsals for Barkleys but missed so many days due to illness that MGM was forced to remove her from the film on July 18, 1948. She was replaced Ginger Rogers and put on suspension.

It wasn't until May, 1950 that MGM again tried to team Judy with Astaire, this time for Royal Wedding. Alas, it was not to be. During the interim, Judy had been on an emotional and physical roller coaster. She had bounced back to film a second guest spot for Words & Music in September of 1948, then in the winter of 1948/1949 she quickly completed In The Good Old Summertime (released in 1949) for the Pasternak Unit.

In March of 1949, Judy began work on Annie Get Your Gun - the Broadway mega-hit that had been purchased at great expense solely for her. But that production was plagued from the start. Busby Berkeley's awful direction, Judy's lack of sufficient rest between productions, and a myriad of other problems conspired against the film. Judy faltered and was suspended again on May 10, 1949. She entered Peter Brent Brigham Hospital in Boston to cure her dependency on prescription medications and recover from a complete physical collapse. After a few months she was well enough to return to MGM. She then went into rehearsals for Summer Stock and finally (and under great emotional strain) completed that film in March of 1950.

"Easter Parade" Judy then went to Carmel for a planned six month rest, but was lured back by MGM to replace the pregnant June Allyson and co-star once again with Fred Astaire in Royal Wedding. It was too much too soon. Judy endured another physical and mental collapse, and was suspended on June 17th, 1950. Two days later she attempted suicide again with a light scratch to her throat. More a cry for help than an actual suicide attempt, the act was leaked to the press and made international headlines. Rather than alienating her, the faux suicide attempt did the reverse by endearing her even more to her fans. On September 29, 1950 Judy was granted her request for a release from her MGM contract. Free from the constraints of the studio system, Judy would soon begin the legendary "concert years" phase of her career.

So, even though the pairing with Fred Astaire was tried and failed, Easter Parade will always remain as one of Judy and Fred's greatest films - and one of the great classics of the golden age of movie musicals.

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Preproduction begins on Easter Parade with Gene Kelly as Judy's lead, and Cyd Charisse as "Nadine".
Music rehearsal.
Music rehearsal.
First rehearsal of "A Couple Of Swells".
09/29 - 09/30/47
Judy was out sick.
"Swells" rehearsal.

"Swells" rehearsal.

"Swells" rehearsal.
"Swells" rehearsal.
First rehearsal of "Mr. Monotony".
"Swells" & "Mr. Monotony" rehearsal.
"Swells" & "Mr. Monotony" rehearsal.
"Swells" rehearsal.
"Mr. Monotony" rehearsal. Also - Gene Kelly brakes his ankle, forcing him to bow out of the film. Fred Astaire is called out of his self-imposed "semi-retirement" to take Kelly's place.
Fred Astaire joins the cast. Judy is rehearsing "Mr. Monotony" on this date.
"Swells" rehearsal. Presumably the first one with Fred Astaire taking over for Gene Kelly.
Judy begins filming retakes for The Pirate after previews necessitated some major changes. Judy would shuttle back and forth between The Pirate and Easter Parade through December 19, 1947.
10/23 - 10/25/47
Judy was out sick.
Judy participates with other stars to protest against the House of un-American Activities Committee, via the radio show "Hollywood Fights Back".
The Pirate retakes.
"Swells" rehearsal.
"Strut" rehearsal and orchestration of "Mr. Monotony".
Rehearsed "Strut," "Drum," & "Mr. Monotony".
10/31 & 11/01/47
Judy was out sick.
Wardrobe tests.
"Mr. Monotony" rehearsal.
"Mr. Monotony" rehearsal.
Rehearsed "A Fella With An Umbrella," "A Couple Of Swells," & "Mr. Monotony".
Rehearsed "A Fella With An Umbrella," "A Couple Of Swells," & "Ragtime Violin".
Wardrobe and makeup tests.
First recording session for Easter Parade. Judy records "I Want To Go Back To Michigan (Down On The Farm)," & "Mr. Monotony".
Recording session. Judy and fred record "A Couple Of Swells". Judy also rehearses "It Only Happens When I Dance With You" and "A Fella With An Umbrella".
Rehearsed (presumably the performing of) "Mr. Monotony" & "Michigan".
Judy's final recording session for Decca Records.
Recording session: "Vaudeville Montage" with Fred Astaire (Medley consists of: "I Love A Piano," "Snookey Ookums," "The Ragtime Violin," & "When The Midnights Choo-Choo Leaves For Alabam').
More retakes for The Pirate, "interior Manuela's bedroom". After these, Judy posed for wardrobe tests for Easter Parade, wearing the dress for the "bloopface" scene is which she walks ahead of Fred Astaire to try and get passers-by to look at her. One of Judy's funniest moments on film!
Rehearsed "A Fella With An Umbrella" and "Mr. Monotony".
11/21 & 22/47
Filming of "Mr. Monotony". This number is cut from the film, but the footage survives and was the most talked about sequence in the 1994 theatrical release That's Entertainment III. Judy is wearing the outfit with which she would later become identified with, the top half of a tuxedo. She wore the outfit to great effect two years later in her final film (and footage shot for) MGM: Summer Stock (1950).
Judy was out sick.
Rehearsals and fitting. Rehearsed the "Interior Millinery Shop" scene and the song "A Fella With An Umbrella".
Rehearsed "A Fella With An Umbrella" and "It Only Happens When I Dance With You".
11/28 - 29/47
Judy was not on call.
Judy had a call for The Pirate retakes, but called in sick.
The Pirate work. Rehearsal of the newly revised "Mack The Black" number.
12/03 - 04/47
Filming: "Interior Globe Theater" - "A Couple Of Swells".
Filming: The "I Love A Piano" and "Snookey Ookums" parts of the "Vaudeville Montage".
Filming: The "The Ragtime Violin" part of the "Vaudeville Montage".
Filming: "Interior Pastini's Cafe".
Judy had a 9:00 a.m. call to film "Interior Pastini's Cafe" (including the song "I Want To Go Back To Michigan". She notified the studio that she would not be able to work until after lunch. She arrived on the set at 1:00 p.m. to film "Interior Rehearsal Hall". The company was dismissed at 5:55 p.m.
Filming: "Interior Michael's" and "Interior Pastini's Cafe" (the "Michigan" number).
More The Pirate retakes. The Assistant Director of that film noted that Judy reported for recording at 1:30 p.m. and rehearsed until 3:30 p.m. at which time she said that she had a temperature. Producer Arthur Freed was on the set and had a doctor called. A "Dr. Jones" came to the set and found that Judy had no temperature, but advised that she should not work the rest of the day, nor the following day.
Judy was out sick.
Judy was not on call.
Judy recorded the new, improved version of "Mack The Black" for The Pirate. This is the version that we see in the film today. Judging from the surviving audio outtakes (see The Pirate page in the Rhino Records section) we can see why it was replaced. The outtake footage of the original sequence no longer exists.
12/16 - 18/47
The Pirate retakes: Rehearsed "Mack The Black".
Final The Pirate retakes. Judy filmed retakes of "Interior Manuela's Balcony". The Pirate was finally finished, and would be released prior to Easter Parade on June 11, 1948.
Filmed "Interior Amsterdam Theater Stage" ("When The Midnight Choo-Choo Leaves For Alabam") as well as "Interior Amsterdam Back Stage" (probably the scene where Nadine [Ann Miller] confronts Don and Hannah after their audition).
12/22 & 23/47
Filming includes "Exterior Drug Store" and "Exterior Alleyway (Amsterdam Theater)".
12/24 - 27/47
Judy was out sick.
Filmed "Interior Brevoort Restaurant" with Peter Lawford.
Filmed "Interior Dress Shop" and "Interior Hannah's Hotel Suite".
Judy was out sick.
Filmed the scene when Judy and Fred look at the calendar and discover that they'll be back in New York in time for the Easter Parade.
Filmed "Interior Hannah's Hotel Suite" and "Interior Don's Living Room".
Filmed "Interior Don's Living Room" and "Exterior Hannah's Dressing Room".
Judy was out sick.
Recording session: "A Fella With An Umbrella" (Judy and Peter Lawford), Judy's reprise of "It Only Happens When I Dance With You," and "Better Luck Next Time". The complete, previously unreleased version of "Better Luck Next Time," which is quite beautiful, is on the Rhino Records soundtrack CD.
Filmed "Interior Don's Living Room". On this date, the Assistant Director noted that they had to wait "for Miss Garland and Mr. Astaire; detained at Mr. Mayer's party."- they evidently arrived around 1:43 p.m. and filmed until 5:55 p.m.
01/09 & 10/48 Filmed "Interior Hannah's Dressing Room" and "Interior Pastini's".
01/12/48 More filming. On this day, the Assistant Director noted that at 9:05 a.m. Judy called Wally Worsley from her dressing saying that she wasn't feeling well and had sent for a doctor and that she would be on the set after the doctor finished his examination. She arrived on stage at 10:19 a.m. "changing into wardrobe" and was ready at 10:44 a.m. The company was dismissed at 3 p.m.

It's interesting to note the incredible detail at which the Assistant Directors kept track of the comings and goings on the set. At least as far as Judy was concerned. It could possibly be that they were required to keep track of her attendance, because by this point it was well known throughout the studio that Judy had become increasingly unreliable due (we all know in hindsight) to her struggles with prescription medicines and her own personal demons and insecurities.
01/13/48 Judy was not needed on this day.
01/14/48 Filmed "Interior Amsterdam Roof".
01/15/48 Filmed "A Fella With An Umbrella" with Peter Lawford. This is the day that Judy would later joke about with Lawford and Mike douglas on Mike's show in August of 1968. Judy told the story about how the rain in the scene made the red dye in her feather bleed all over her face, making her face itself look as though it were bleeding profusely. MGM's remedy was (to quote Judy) "put Vaseline on it, and I thought that was kind of unattractive"!!
01/16/48 Filmed "Exterior Drugstore" (the "Fella With An Umbrella" sequence).
01/17/48 Filmed "Exterior Drugstore". Judy also recorded more takes of "Better Luck Next Time". This is probably the date that the abridged version, as heard in the film, was recorded. The longer version noted above was not filmed.
01/19/48 Rehearsed "Easter Parade".
01/20/48 The Easter Parade company was on layoff.
01/21/48 Judy was not needed on this day.
01/22/48 Judy was out sick.
01/23/48 Filmed "Exterior 5th Avenue" - the first Easter Parade in the film.
01/24/48 The company was forced to forfeit shooting due to "bad weather".
01/26/48 Recording session. Judy recorded "Easter Parade" with Fred Astaire.
01/27/48 Filmed "Exterior Michael's," "Exterior 5th Avenue," and "Interior Vaudeville Theater".
01/28/48 Filmed the scene where Judy and Fred perform for the first time, with the feathers flying all over the place and Judy giving a beautifully comic performance. The Assistant Director noted that Judy called Wally Worsley in her dressing room at 8:55 a.m. and said that she would be late due to not feeling well. She arrived on the set at 10:07 a.m. The company was dismissed at 5:45 p.m.
01/29/48 Judy was out sick.
01/30/48 Filmed "Interior Vaudeville Theater Backstage" and "Interior Don's Apartment".
01/31/48 Filmed "Interior Don's Apartment" (The "Easter Parade" number) and "Interior and Exterior Drug Store".
02/02/48 "Sync to loops and taps" (dubbing work).
02/03/04 "Sync to loops".
02/04 & 05/48 Judy was not needed on these days.
02/06/48 Judy was out sick.
02/07/48 Judy was not needed on this day.
02/09/48 Filmed "Exterior 5th Avenue" (the second Easter Parade - finale - sequence) and "Interior Amsterdam Lobby". This was the final day of actual filming for Easter Parade excepting some retakes on March 12.
02/23/48 "Sync to loops" work. Also on this day, The Pirate had a preview at Loew's 72nd Street Theater in New York City.
02/28/48 Preview of Easter Parade at Westwood Village Theater.
03/02/48 Another preview.
03/11/48 More rehearsals for "A Fella With An Umbrella".
03/12/48 Filmed "Exterior Drugstore" ("A Fella With An Umbrella") and "Interior Brevoort Restaurant". This was the final day of filming.
07/16/48 The official release date of the film. Easter Parade would gross $6,083,000. Quite a huge number considering the film was made for only $2,503,654. Easter Parade was Judy's biggest MGM hit, after Meet Me In St. Louis (which grossed - in its initial release - $7,566,000). What's interesting to note is that Easter Parade isn't a Judy Garland musical per se, but rather an MGM musical which happens to have Judy Garland as the leading lady. It proves that Judy could hold her own with stellar talent such as Fred Astaire and Ann Miller. Unfortunately, due to health reasons Easter Parade is the last big musical Judy would make at MGM. She made several more musicals, but not on the huge scale as Easter Parade.

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"A Couple Of Swells"Production No. 1418
Production dates: November 25, 1947 - March 12, 1948
Release date: July 16, 1948.
Cost: $2,503,654
Gross (in initial release): $6,083,000

Judy Garland ... Hannah Brown
Fred Astaire ... Don Hewes
Peter Lawford ... Jonathan Harrow III
Ann Miller ... Nadine Hale
Jules Munshin ... Francois, the Head Waiter
Clinton Sundberg ... Mike, the Bartender
Jeni Le Gon ... Essie
Jimmy Bates ... Boy with Don in toyshop
Richard Beavers ... Leading Man
Dick Simmons ... Al, the Stage Manager
Dee Turnell ... Specialty Dancer
Lola Albright and Joi Lansing ... Showgirls
Wilson Wood ... Marty
Lynn and Jean Romer ... "Delineator" Twins
Peter Chong ... Valet
Nolan Leary ... Drug Clerk
Judy Garland Portrait Benay Venuta ... Bar Patron
Frank Mayo ... Headwaiter
Doris Kemper ... Mary
Hector and His Pals ... Dog Act
William Frawley ... cameo as policeman, uncredited

Produced by: Arthur Freed
Directed by: Charles Walters
Screenplay by: Sidney Shelton, Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett
(based on a story by Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett)
Music and Lyrics by: Irving Berlin
Musical numbers staged and directed by: Robert Alton
Arrangements by: Conrad Salinger, Roger Edens
Conducted by: Johnny Green
Vocal Arrangements: Robert Tucker
Photography: Harry Stradling
Editor: Albert Akst
Art Direction: Cedric Gibbons, Jack Martin Smith

FACTOIDS:Judy Garland
This was Judy and Fred's only film together. Just after filming Easter Parade, they went into production for The Barkley's Of Broadway (1949) but Judy was ill and was replaced by Ginger Rogers. In 1950, Judy was to replace a pregnant June Allyson as Fred's partner in Royal Wedding, but again had to bow out during production due to illness. She was replaced by Jane Powell. Producer Arthur Freed also planned to make The Belle Of New York with Judy and Fred, but that version never went into production. Fred would make Belle in 1952 with Vera-Ellen as his co-star.

William Frawley ("Fred Mertz" on I Love Lucy) has an uncredited bit part in Easter Parade as a policeman.

"Mr. Monotony" was one of Irving Berlin's favorite songs. After it's deletion from Easter Parade, he tried to include it in the 1949 Broadway show Miss Liberty but it didn't make it past the out-of-town tryouts. The same thing happened when he tried to include it in Ethel Merman's Broadway hit Call Me Madam (1950). As late as 1989 Sarah Brightman included the song on a Decca Records CD entitled "The Songs That Got Away", which consisted of little known songs from Broadway musicals that were either cut or changed drastically before making it to the Great White Way. That same year, a variation of Mr. Monotony appeared in Jerome Robbin's Broadway.

"Mr. Monotony"The idea to have Judy wear the top half of a tuxedo for "Mr. Monotony" came from husband Vincente Minnelli. He based it on an outfit worn by Tamara Geva in Broadway's Three's a Crowd in 1930.

Roger Edens and Johnny Green won the 1948 Academy Award for "MUSIC (Best Scoring of a Musical Picture)" for Easter Parade. Their competition was: Lenny Hayton for The Pirate, Victor Young for The Emperor Waltz, Alfred Newman for When My Baby Smiles At Me, and Ray Heindorf for Romance On The High Seas (which, incidentally, Warner Bros. wanted Judy for the lead but she was too busy at MGM - so a new Warner's contract player named Doris Day got the role which started her illustrious career).

The famous Easter Parade shot at the end of the film was filmed on Lot 3 behind the St. Louis Street, where according to Art Director Jack Martin Smith there was "an empty, paved area. I built the lower ten feet of St. Patrick's and one side of Fifth Avenue for two city Blocks." The right side of the shot was effectively painted in using the Newcombe process so popular at the time.

Irving Berlin knew the time period (1912) of the film very well. He had written songs for the "Ziegfeld Follies of 1911", and the scores for the "Ziegfeld Follies of 1919, 1920, & 1927". Berlin received over $600,000 for his work on Easter Parade.

A special thanks to Eric Hemphill, Jamin Fowler, and Kim Loeffler
and others for provided many of the images seen in these pages. Thanks!

Judy Garland & Fred Astaire

Judy Garland Books
For even more detailed timelines, check out Scott Schechter's fantastic book "Judy Garland The Day-by-Day Chronicle of a Legend." This book is not a "biography" but exactly what the title says: A Day-by-Day Chronicle of Judy's life. With access to the Arthur Freed archives in the UCLA Library, as well as a multitude of other sources, Scott picks up where The Judy Room timelines leave off - and provides even more detailed information than you'll find here. Nice pictures too. For people who enjoy raw data this is the book for you! - Click here to purchase.
Click here for more information about Judy Garland books.

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